Balinese verbs related to water : metalanguage approach


  • I Nengah Sudipa Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • I Nyoman Weda Kusuma Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Made Henra Dwikarmawan Sudipa Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Indonesia
  • Komang Dian Puspita Candra Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Indonesia


metalanguage, subtle meaning difference, time-stability scale


This article aims at displaying the way how to map the meaning of Balinese verbs related to water. The data are oral and written forms collected by observation, interview, and taking-note. The oral language was collected from the key-informant in three villages within two regencies in Bali, namely Klungkung and Buleleng. The written data was observed from the 4 novels using the modern Balinese language. The collected data was furthermore analyzed by the Metalanguage approach which manages to map all the meaning in the form of language description. Metalanguage approach based upon entity, process, instrument, and result is able to detect the subtle meaning difference among the verbs having a similar semantic field. From the scale of time-stability, the result shows that the mapping of action verbs: anyud, ngelangi, mandus, silem, mambuh imply the time reference change rapidly. The mapping of process verbs:  aad, tiis, éncéh, and beku carry the time reference is less stable. The mapping of state verbs:  bedak, belus, and tuduh is considered to imply the time reference is very stable.


Download data is not yet available.


Allan, K. (2001). Natural Language Semantics. Great Britain.

Allan, K. (Ed.). (2015). The Routledge handbook of linguistics. Routledge.

Aslam, A., & Chaman, S. Semantic Change in Words Borrowed From English to Urdu.

Astawa, I. G., Budiarsa, M., & Simpen, I. W. (2018). Power and ideology revealed in the awig-awig (customary law) text of Tenganan Pagringsingan village: critical ecolinguistic study. International journal of linguistics, 10(5), 45-60.

Balinese Governor Decree No. 24/2020. formulate the rule to protect water source, lake, river and sea as the source of Balinese life in Bali Indonesia

Balinese Governor Decree No. 80/2018 formulate the rule to protect Balinese characters, language and literatures and the implementation of Language month.

Balinese short stories by I Made Sugianto entitled Sing Jodoh (2013) code SJ Code Sentana (2014) code ST

Cargill, M., & O'Connor, P. (2013). Writing scientific research articles: Strategy and steps. John Wiley & Sons.

Coleridge, S. T. (2002). The Notebooks of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: 1827-1834 (Vol. 163). Princeton University Press.

Compilation of Balinese Short Stories by IBW Widiasa Keniten entiled Pasisi Sanur (2019) Code PS and Mekel Paris (2012) Code MP,

Creswell, J. W., & Zhang, W. (2009). The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official publication of the international society for traumatic stress studies, 22(6), 612-621.

Dasopang, A. F. (2017). Semantic and Semiotic Analysis of “Rere Mana Rere” Song in the Culture of Mandailing. Int. J. Linguist, 9(3), 15-24.

Galloway, E. P., Dobbs, C., Olivo, M., & Madigan, C. (2019). ‘You can…’: An examination of language-minoritized learners’ development of metalanguage and agency as users of academic language within a multivocal instructional approach. Linguistics and Education, 50, 13-24.

Gebhard, M., Chen, I. A., & Britton, L. (2014). “Miss, nominalization is a nominalization:” English language learners’ use of SFL metalanguage and their literacy practices. Linguistics and Education, 26, 106-125.

Givón, T. (1984). Syntax-a functional-typological introduction. Amsterdam. Philadelphia, Benjamins.

Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (2013). Words and meanings: Lexical semantics across domains, languages, and cultures. OUP Oxford.

Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (2014). The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach. Oxford “

Hornby, A. S. (2000). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 6th edition Oxford University Press.

Sudipa, I. N., Kusuma, I. N. W., Sudipa, M. H. D., & Candra, K. D. P. (2019). Ngaba and Makta of Balinese Action Verbs, How to Map Their Meanings?. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 3(3), 71-80.

Sudipa, I. N., Suryati, N. M., Laksminy, L. P., & Jirnaya, I. K. (2018). The Semantic Structures Of Balinese Verb: Mabersih ‘To Clean’Conveying Profane-Sacred Values.

Suparka, I. W. & Anom, I.G.K. (1993). Tata Bahasa Bali Anyar. Denpasar : Upada Sastra.

Taylor, C. (2015). Beyond sarcasm: The metalanguage and structures of mock politeness. Journal of Pragmatics, 87, 127-141.

Tedeschi, P. J., & Zaenen, A. (Eds.). (1981). Tense and aspect. Academic Press.

Traugott, E. C. (2017). Semantic change. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.

Triguna, I. B. Y. (2017). Filosofi melestarikan Air. Makalah Serasehan

Utama, I. W. B. (2016). Air, Tradisi dan Industri. Denpasar: Universitas Hindu Indonesia.

Van Valin, R. D., van Valin Jr, R. D., LaPolla, R. J., van Valin Jr, R. D., & LaPolla, R. J. (1997). Syntax: Structure, meaning, and function. Cambridge University Press.

Warna, I. W. (1993). Tata Bahasa Bali. Denpasar: Upada Sastra



How to Cite

Sudipa, I. N., Kusuma, I. N. W., Sudipa, M. H. D., & Candra, K. D. P. (2021). Balinese verbs related to water : metalanguage approach. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 20-30.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)