Arabic as foreign language learning in pandemic COVID-19 as perceived by students and teachers


  • Mahyudin Ritonga Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera, Padang, Indonesia
  • Martin Kustati Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, Indonesia
  • Meliza Budiarti Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, Indonesia
  • Ahmad Lahmi Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatera, Padang, Indonesia
  • Musda Asmara Institute Agama Islam Negeri Curup, Bengkulu, Indonesia
  • Rahadian Kurniawan Institute Agama Islam Negeri Curup, Bengkulu, Indonesia
  • Neli Putri Universitas Islam Negeri Imam Bonjol, Padang, Indonesia
  • Endri Yenti Institute Agama Islam Negeri Bukittinggi, West Sumatera, Indonesia


Arabic foreign language, COVID-19, language education, language learning, language skills, linguistic aspects, linguistic skills, mobile application


Teaching and learning process using mobile application becomes one of alternative tools to substitute face-to-face learning during Pandemic Covid-19. The lecture process during the period has been experienced since March 2020 until the end of the even semester of the academic year 2019/2020. There were various obstacles felt by lecturers and students in the courses. Under normal conditions, learning Arabic as a foreign language is still faced with various problems. Since, there are no specific studies in this issues that have been conducted by experts for Indonesian context, we are interested to identify the perception of students and lecturers on the quality of Arabic teaching and learning process. This research uses qualitative method where the sources of data are students and lecturers of Arabic language education study program Faculty of Islamic Studies, Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatra. The data collection taken from interview by phone. The finding showed that the students and lecturers' perceptions of the quality of the online learning process are negative. Then, students’ and lecturers' perceptions of the quality of online Arabic learning outcomes are negative.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullahi, A., Rouyan, N. B. M., & Noor, S. S. binti M. (2018). The Use of Web 2.0 Technologies to Determine Receptive Skills Among Malay Learners of Arabic Language. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 8(9), 651–659.

Adrianto, D., Martani, M., Indriani, D., & Susanti, R. (2017). Development of Online Learning System for Software laboratory Center in Bina Nusantara University. ComTech, 8(2), 83–94.

Aladdin, A. (2010). Non-muslim Malaysian learners of Arabic (NMMLAs): An investigation of their attitudes and motivation towards learning Arabic as a foreign language in multiethnic and multicultural Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 1805-1811.

Anhusadar, L. O. (2020). Persepsi Mahasiswa PIAUD terhadap Kuliah Online di Masa Pandemi. Kindergarten: Journal of Islamic Early Childhood Education, 3(1), 44–58.

Aprianto, Ritonga, M., Marlius, Y., & Nusyur, R. (2020). The Influence of Using Audio- lingual Method on Students’ Speaking Skill in Madrasah Diniyah Takmiliyah Awwaliyyah. Izdihar: Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature, 3(2), 147–160.

Basilaia, G., & Kvavadze, D. (2020). Transition to Online Education in Schools during a SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic in Georgia. Pedagogical Research, 5(4), 1–9.

Bakry, M. S., & Alsamadani, H. A. (2015). Improving the persuasive essay writing of students of Arabic as a foreign language (AFL): Effects of self-regulated strategy development. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 182, 89-97.

Bidabadi, N. S., Isfahani, A. N., Rouhollahi, A., & Khalili, R. (2016). Effective Teaching Methods in Higher Education: Requirements and Barriers. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 4(4), 170–178.

Chalmers, D. (2008). Teaching and Learning Quality Indicators in Australian Universities. Higher Education Management and Policy Journal., September, 1–18.

Calafato, R., & Tang, F. (2019). The status of Arabic, superdiversity, and language learning motivation among non-Arab expats in the Gulf. Lingua, 219, 24-38.

Diab, R. L. (2006). University students’ beliefs about learning English and French in Lebanon. System, 34(1), 80-96.

Djumabaeva, J. S., & Kengboyeva, M. Y. (2021). Bilingualism and its importance in human life. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 53-63.

Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, Supplement, 14(1), 4–58.

Elnaggar, K. M. (2019). Shu’ubat Ta’allum al-Lughah al-’Arabiyyah li Ghayr al-Nathiqin biha bi al-Jami’ah al-Islamiyyah bi al-Madinah al-Munawwarah [Difficulties in Learning Arabic for non-native Speakers Islamic University in Medina. International Journal of Research in Educational Sciences, 2(4), 289–354.

El Omari, S. (2015). The effect of computer-assisted language learning on improving Arabic as a foreign language (AFL) in higher education in the United States. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 192, 621-628.

Emam, M., Kazem, A., Al-Said, T., Al-Maamary, W., & Al-Mandhari, R. (2014). Variations in Arabic Reading Skills Between Normally Achieving and at Risk for Reading Disability Students in Second and Fourth Grades. Review of European Studies, 6(3), 17–30.

Fojtík, R. (2018). Problems of Distance Education. International Journal of Information and Communication Technologies in Education, 7(1), 14–23.

Grzega, J. (2021). The linguistic impact of coronavirus on online service offers in Spain as well as France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 31-42.

Gillett-Swan, J. (2017). The Challenges of Online Learning: Supporting and Engaging the Isolated Learner. Journal of Learning Design, 10(1), 20–30.

Hamed, A. (2012). The Utilization of Technology in Teaching of the Arabic Language in Secondary Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64, 594–603.

Hanafi, Julaeha, S., & Noviyanti, M. (2008). The Application of E-Learning in Tutorial Process. Jurnal Pendidikan Terbuka Dan Jarak Jauh, 9(1), 24–30.

Hikmat, Hermawan, E., Aldim, & Irwandi. (2020). Efektivitas Pembalajaran Daring Selama Masa Pandemi Covid-19: Sebuah Survey Online. Karya Tulis Ilmiah (KTI) Masa Work From Home (WFH) Covid-19 UIN Sunan Gunung Djati Bandung Tahun 2020, 1–7. Kelompok 7.pdf

Karam, F. J., Kibler, A. K., & Yoder, P. J. (2017). “Because even us, Arabs, now speak English”: Syrian refugee teachers’ investment in English as a foreign language. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 60, 169-182.

Karanezi, X., & Rapti, E. (2015). Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceptions: Association of Teachers’ Attitudes toward Traditional and Modern Teaching Methodology According to RWCT as Well as Teachers’ Perceptions for Teaching as a Profession. Creative Education, 06(04), 623–630.

Mahmoodi, M. H., & Moazam, I. (2014). Willingness to communicate (WTC) and L2 achievement: The case of Arabic language learners. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1069-1076.

Maluch, J. T., Kempert, S., Neumann, M., & Stanat, P. (2015). The effect of speaking a minority language at home on foreign language learning. Learning and instruction, 36, 76-85.

Mårtensson, J., Eriksson, J., Bodammer, N. C., Lindgren, M., Johansson, M., Nyberg, L., & Lövdén, M. (2012). Growth of language-related brain areas after foreign language learning. NeuroImage, 63(1), 240-244.

Muzaffar, A. (2017). Derivasi Indikator Hasil Belajar Bahasa Arab. Jurnal Lisanuna, 7(2), 213–225.

Nguyen, T. (2015). The Effectiveness of Online Learning: Beyond No Significant Difference and Future Horizons. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 309–319.

Nurhidayati, Irhamni, & Ainin, M. (2020). Learning Strategy Patterns in Developing Skills for Listening of Arabic Speech. ISolec International Seminar on Language, Education, and Culture, 2020, 223–236.

Pakpahan, R., & Fitriani, Y. (2020). Analisis Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dalam Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh di Tengah Pandemi Virus Corona Covid-19. JJISAMAR: Ournal of Information System, Applied, Management, Accounting and Research, 4(2), 30–36.

Pitsoe, V. J., & Letseka, M. M. (2016). Quality Assurance in Virtual Learning Environments for Open Distance Learning. In Intech: Vol. Dhapter 5 (Issue tourism, pp. 71–85).

Rahma, K. A., Zukhaira, & Hasyim, M. Y. A. (2017). Pengembangan Media Booklet 3D Berbahan Flanel Untuk Pembelajaran Keterampilan Menulis Bahasa Arab Siswa Kelas V MI. Journal of Arabic Learning and Teaching, 6(1), 59–63.

Ritonga, M, Ritonga, M., Nurdianto, T., Kustati, M., Rehani, Lahmi, A., Yasmadi, & Pahri. (2020). E-Learning Process of Maharah Qira’ah in Higher Education during the Covid-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(6), 227–235.

Ritonga, M., Asrina, Widayanti, R., Alrasi, F., Julhadi, & Halim, S. (2020). Analysis of Arabic Language Learning at Higher Education Institutions with Multi-Religion Students. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(9), 4333–4339.

Ritonga, M., Nazir, A., & Wahyuni, S. (2016). Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Berbasis Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi. Arabiyat: Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa Arab Dan Kebahasaaraban, 3(1), 1–12.

Ritonga, M., Nazir, A., & Wahyuni, S. (2020). Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab Berbasis Teknologi Informasi & Komunikasi dalam dialektika Revolusi Industri 4.0 [Development of Arabic language learning Model based on information Technology & Communication in dialectic Industrial Revolution (Bambang, I. Naska, & F. Alrasi (eds.); Januari). Deepublish.

Sari, R. R., & Hasibuan, A. A. (2019). Students’ Perception Toward Social Media Assisted Language Learning (SMALL) for Arabic Learning. Izdihar: Journal of Arabic Language Teaching, Linguistics, and Literature, 2(2), 101–114.

Siahaan, S. (2018). Perintisan Model Pembelajaran Terintegrasi TIK di Daerah Terdepan, Terluar, Tertinggal, dan Perbatasan. Jurnal Teknodik, 22(2), 171–185.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling Methods in Research Methodology; How to Choose a Sampling Technique for Research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management (IJARM), 5(2), 18–27.

Thu’aimah, R. A. (2008). Maharat al-Lughawiyyah Mustawiyatuha, Tadrisuha, Shu’ubatuha (Issue 1). Mamlakah al-Sa’udiyyah.

UNESCO. (2018). Handbook on Measuring Equity in Education. Unesco Institute for Statistics.

Uvali?-Trumbi?, S., & Daniel, S. J. (2018). A Guide to Quality in Online Learning. Academic Partnerships.

Wekke, I. S. (2015). Arabic teaching and learning: A model from Indonesian muslim minority. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 286-290.

Windiarti, S., Fadilah, N., Dhermawati, E., & Pratolo, B. W. (2019). Teachers’ Perception toward the Obstacles of E-Learning Classes. Ethical Lingua: Journal of Language Teaching and Literature, 6(2), 117–128.

Y?ld?r?m, S., & Y?ld?r?m, Ö. (2016). The Importance of Listening in Language Learning and Listening Comprehension Problems Experienced by Language Learners: A Literature Review. Aban Izzet Baysal Universitesi E?itim Fakültesi Dergisi, 16(4), 2094–2110.



How to Cite

Ritonga, M., Kustati, M., Budiarti, M., Lahmi, A., Asmara, M., Kurniawan, R., Putri, N., & Yenti, E. (2021). Arabic as foreign language learning in pandemic COVID-19 as perceived by students and teachers. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 75-92.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)