Commodification of media in helping public relations performance in the regional development sector in Indonesia

Multicultural communication humanization


  • Zulfiah Larisu Universitas Halu Oleo, Kendari, Indonesia
  • Leila Mona Universitas Mercu Buana, Jakarta, Indonesia


commodification, communication, humanization, multiculturalism, regional development


Indonesia is referred to as a multicultural country, so the context of the multicultural country that is built is based on ethnicity, race, religion, groups and not customary groups where the placement of customs is part of the process of formulating public policies. This means that the context of life in the Indonesian state is multikulepresion or a country consisting of various kinds of differences. Therefore, to build good relations, it is necessary to build multicultural communication, especially in any media in supporting development in various regional sectors in Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to describe commodification of media in helping public relations performance in the regional development sector in Indonesia: multicultural communication humanization. This research is descriptive qualitative research with ethnographic communication approach. Processing of data through the process of collecting, collecting, selecting, and presenting. The analysis technique uses communication interpretation. The results of the study indicate that development communication includes; (1) multicultural as the main character of the Indonesian nation; (2) dimensions of development through media; (3) humanization and societies in the regional development sector in Indonesia.


Download data is not yet available.


Agha, A. (2006). Language and social relations (Vol. 24). Cambridge University Press.

Ambe, E. B. (2006). Fostering multicultural appreciation in pre-service teachers through multicultural curricular transformation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(6), 690-699.

Archetti, C. (2013). Terrorism, Communication, and the Media. In Understanding Terrorism in the Age of Global Media (pp. 32-59). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Arora, A., Arora, A. S., & Palvia, S. (2014). Social media index valuation: Impact of technological, social, economic, and ethical dimensions. Journal of Promotion Management, 20(3), 328-344.

Bara, A. L., & Pradesyah, R. (2020). Analysis of The Management of Productive Zakat At The Muhammadiyah, City of Medan. In Proceeding International Seminar of Islamic Studies (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 617-623).

Bell, A. (1991). The language of news media (pp. 84-85). Oxford: Blackwell.

Bell, D. (1991). The Final Civil Rights Act. Calif. L. Rev., 79, 597.

Bell, D. (1992). Political reality testing: 1993. Fordham L. Rev., 61, 1033.

Berger, J. (2014). Word of mouth and interpersonal communication: A review and directions for future research. Journal of consumer psychology, 24(4), 586-607.

Bignell, J. (2007). Postmodern media culture. Aakar Books.

Bille, T., & Schulze, G. G. (2006). Culture in urban and regional development. Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture, 1, 1051-1099.

Biswas, R., Riffe, D., & Zillmann, D. (1994). Mood influence on the appeal of bad news. Journalism Quarterly, 71(3), 689-696.

Bromley, M., & Romano, A. (2012). Democracy, the press and civil society in Hong Kong PAUL SN LEE. In Journalism and Democracy in Asia (pp. 95-109). Routledge.

Brotosusilo, A., Apriana, I. W. A., Satria, A. A., & Jokopitoyo, T. (2016). Littoral and coastal management in supporting maritime security for realizing Indonesia as world maritime axis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 30, No. 1, p. 012016). IOP Publishing.

Bryant, J., & Miron, D. (2004). Theory and research in mass communication. Journal of communication.

Bryer, T. A., & Zavattaro, S. M. (2011). Social media and public administration: Theoretical dimensions and introduction to the symposium. Administrative theory & praxis, 33(3), 325-340.

Buckman, R. (2017). How to break bad news. University of Toronto Press.

Byrd, M. Y. (2018). Social identity diversity and leadership in the workforce. In Diversity in the Workforce (pp. 289-306). Routledge.

Chaney, D. C. (1972). Processes of mass communication. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Chaney, D., & Martin, D. (2017). The role of shared values in understanding loyalty over time: A longitudinal study on music festivals. Journal of Travel Research, 56(4), 507-520.

Christians, C. G., Ferre, J. P., & Fackler, P. M. (1993). Good news: Social ethics and the press. Oxford University Press.

Clark, C. (2002). Effective multicultural curriculum transformation across disciplines. Multicultural Perspectives, 4(3), 37-46.

Connell, J. (2013). Contemporary medical tourism: Conceptualisation, culture and commodification. Tourism management, 34, 1-13.

Cornett-DeVito, M. M., & McGlone, E. L. (2000). Multicultural communication training for law enforcement officers: A case study. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 11(3), 234-253.

Crilly, N., Maier, A., & Clarkson, P. J. (2008). Representing artefacts as media: Modelling the relationship between designer intent and consumer experience. International Journal of Design, 2(3), 15-27.

Csikosova, A., Teplicka, K., & Senova, A. (2012). Communication and humanization of university education through e-learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2978-2982.

Dani, J. A., & Mediantara, Y. (2020). Covid-19 dan perubahan komunikasi sosial. Persepsi: Communication Journal, 3(1), 94-102.

Dasih, I. G. A. R. P., Triguna, I. B. G. Y., & Winaja, I. W. (2019). Intercultural communication based on ideology, theology and sociology. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 5(5), 29-35.

d'Astous, A., & Boujbel, L. (2007). Positioning countries on personality dimensions: Scale development and implications for country marketing. Journal of Business Research, 60(3), 231-239.

Dhillon, P. A. (1994). Multiple identities: A phenomenology of multicultural communication. Peter Lang.

Domingo, D., Quandt, T., Heinonen, A., Paulussen, S., Singer, J. B., & Vujnovic, M. (2008). Participatory journalism practices in the media and beyond: An international comparative study of initiatives in online newspapers. Journalism practice, 2(3), 326-342.

Dor, D. (2015). The instruction of imagination: Language as a social communication technology. Oxford University Press, USA.

Dyer, R. (2005). Only entertainment. Routledge.

En?chescu, V. A. (2013). Understanding multicultural communication and cooperation through multicultural Dobrogea. Jurnalul Practicilor Comunitare Pozitive, 13(2), 108-115.

Eveland Jr, W. P., Hayes, A. F., Shah, D. V., & Kwak, N. (2005). Understanding the relationship between communication and political knowledge: A model comparison approach using panel data. Political Communication, 22(4), 423-446.

Eyrich, N., Padman, M. L., & Sweetser, K. D. (2008). PR practitioners’ use of social media tools and communication technology. Public relations review, 34(4), 412-414.

Faulkner, B. (2003). Tourism development options in Indonesia and the case of agro-tourism in central Java. In Embracing and Managing Change in Tourism (pp. 237-256). Routledge.

Fauzan, M. T., & Rohmadi, S. H. (2021). Building epistemology of multicultural education to the indigenous Javanese Islam. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S3), 1076-1089.

Festinger, L., Back, K., Schachter, S., Kelley, H. H., & Thibaut, J. (1950). Theory and experiment in social communication. Ann Arbor: Research Center for Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Girgis, A., & Sanson-Fisher, R. W. (1995). Breaking bad news: consensus guidelines for medical practitioners. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 13(9), 2449-2456.

Grossberg, L., Wartella, E., Whitney, D. C., & Wise, J. M. (2006). Mediamaking: Mass media in a popular culture. Sage.

Gudykunst, W. B. (Ed.). (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Sage.

Gutsche, R. E. (Ed.). (2018). The Trump presidency, journalism, and democracy. Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.

Hall, E. T., & Hall, E. (1976). How cultures collide. Psychology Today, 10(2), 66.

Hampton, M. P., & Clifton, J. (2016). Tourism in Indonesia. In The Routledge handbook of tourism in Asia (pp. 201-210). Routledge.

Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of communication, 47(1), 40-67.

Hennink, M. M. (2007). International focus group research: A handbook for the health and social sciences. Cambridge University Press.

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. Sage.

Hidayaturrahman, M., & Putra, D. A. (2020). The Role of Technology and Social Media in Spreading the Qur'an and Hadiths by Mubalig. DINIKA: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies, 4(1), 45-64.

Hofstede, G. (2011). National cultures, organizational cultures, and the role of management. Values and Ethics for the 21st Century. Madrid: BBVA, 459-81.

Hovland, C. I., & Lumsdaine, A. A. (2017). Experiments on mass communication. Princeton University Press.

Iggers, J. (2018). Good news, bad news: Journalism ethics and the public interest. Routledge.

J Hartley, J. (2003). Tele-ology: Studies in television. Routledge.

Jo, S., & Kim, Y. (2004). Media or personal relations? Exploring media relations dimensions in South Korea. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(2), 292-306.

Jones, A., & Quach, X. (2007). Intercultural communication. The University of Melbourn.

Josephi, B. (2016). Digital journalism and democracy. The SAGE Handbook of Digital Journalism. London: SAGE, 9-24.

Keane, J. (2007). Journalism and democracy across borders. In Globalisation and Citizenship (pp. 67-89). Routledge.

Kim, Y. Y. (2000). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Sage Publications.

Kivikuru, U. (2001). Contesting the frontiers: Media and dimensions of identity. Nordicom, University of Gothenburg.

Kotthoff, H., & Spencer-Oatey, H. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of intercultural communication (Vol. 7). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Kperogi, F. A. (2011). Webs of resistance: The citizen online journalism of the Nigerian digital diaspora. Georgia State University.

Kreps, G. L., & Kunimoto, E. N. (1994). Effective communication in multicultural health care settings (Vol. 3). Sage Publications.

Kusumasari, B. (2018). Humanizing Or Dividing? The Challenge Of Digital Democracy Implementation In Indonesia. Management Research and Practice, 10(4), 5-20.

Leiss, W., Kline, S., Jhally, S., Botterill, J., & Asquith, K. (2018). Social communication in advertising: Consumption in the mediated marketplace. Routledge.

Madianou, M., & Miller, D. (2013). Polymedia: Towards a new theory of digital media in interpersonal communication. International journal of cultural studies, 16(2), 169-187.

Marchand, R. (1985). Advertising the American dream: Making way for modernity, 1920-1940 (Vol. 53). Univ of California Press.

Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2014). Designing qualitative research. Sage publications.

Maynard, D. W. (2003). Bad news, good news: Conversational order in everyday talk and clinical settings. University of Chicago Press.

McNair, B. (2009). Journalism and democracy. In The handbook of journalism studies (pp. 257-269). Routledge.

McNair, B. (2012). Journalism and democracy: An evaluation of the political public sphere. Routledge.

McQuail, D. (1987). Mass communication theory: An introduction. Sage Publications, Inc.

Milgrom, P. R. (1981). Good news and bad news: Representation theorems and applications. The Bell Journal of Economics, 380-391.

Modood, T. (2013). Multiculturalism. John Wiley & Sons.

Modood, T., & May, S. (2001). Multiculturalism and education in Britain: An internally contested debate. International journal of educational research, 35(3), 305-317.

Montgomery, M. (2007). The discourse of broadcast news: A linguistic approach. Routledge.

Muhlmann, G. (2010). Journalism for democracy. Polity.

Muhsyanur, M., Larisu, Z., Sanulita, H., Ertanti, D. W., & Widada, D. M. (2022). Indonesian netizens expressions potentially satire with the COVID-19 pandemic on social media Facebook: A digital ethnoliteration research. Linguistics and Culture Review, 6(1), 55-69.

Neder, J. A., O’Donnell, C. D., Cory, J., Langer, D., Ciavaglia, C. E., Ling, Y., ... & O’Donnell, D. E. (2015). Ventilation distribution heterogeneity at rest as a marker of exercise impairment in mild-to-advanced COPD. COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, 12(3), 252-259.

Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2009). Cosmopolitan communications: Cultural diversity in a globalized world. Cambridge University Press.

Novinger, T. (2001). Intercultural communication: A practical guide. University of Texas Press.

Patterson, T. E. (2011). Out of Order: An incisive and boldly original critique of the news media's domination of Ameri. Vintage.

Paulus, T. M., & Wise, A. F. (2019). Looking for insight, transformation, and learning in online talk. Routledge.

Pavlik, J. V. (2008). Media in the digital age. Columbia University Press.

Philipsen, G. (1992). Speaking culturally: Explorations in social communication. SUNY Press.

Phillips, A. (2009). Multiculturalism without culture. Princeton University Press.

Philo, G., & Berry, M. (2004). Bad news from Israel. London: Pluto Press.

Prior, M. (2003). Any good news in soft news? The impact of soft news preference on political knowledge. Political communication, 20(2), 149-171.

Riess, S. A. (1999). Touching base: Professional baseball and American culture in the progressive era. University of Illinois Press.

Riva’i, A. K. (2016). Komunikasi sosial pembangunan: Tinjauan teori komunikasi dalam pembangunan sosial. Hawa dan AHWA.

Rochwulaningsih, Y., Sulistiyono, S. T., Masruroh, N. N., & Maulany, N. N. (2019). Marine policy basis of Indonesia as a maritime state: The importance of integrated economy. Marine Policy, 108, 103602.

Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., Bartolucci, G., & Henwood, K. (1986). Psycholinguistic and social psychological components of communication by and with the elderly. Language & Communication, 6(1-2), 1-24.

Scammell, M., & Semetko, H. (2018). The media, journalism and democracy. Routledge.

Serrell, B. (2015). Exhibit labels: An interpretive approach. Rowman & Littlefield.

Shedroff, N., & Noessel, C. (2012). Make it so: interaction design lessons from science fiction. Rosenfeld Media.

Shome, R. (2012). Mapping the Limits of Multiculturalism in the Context of Globalization. International Journal of Communication (19328036), 6.

Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2020). Qualitative research. sage.

Soroka, S. N. (2006). Good news and bad news: Asymmetric responses to economic information. The journal of Politics, 68(2), 372-385.

Sponcil, M., & Gitimu, P. (2013). Use of social media by college students: Relationship to communication and self-concept. Journal of Technology Research, 4(1), 37-49.

Stanton, R. J. (2002). Multicultural communication: Back to the basics. In Annual Conference-Society For Technical Communication (Vol. 49, pp. 123-126). UNKNOWN.

Statistik, B. P. (2018). Profil Kemiskinan di Indonesia Maret 2018. Jakarta (ID): Badan Pusat Statistik.

Strauss, L. (1988). What is political philosophy? And other studies. University of Chicago Press.

Thiemann, K. S., & Goldstein, H. (2001). Social stories, written text cues, and video feedback: Effects on social communication of children with autism. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 34(4), 425-446.

Thompson, J. B. (2013). Ideology and modern culture: Critical social theory in the era of mass communication. John Wiley & Sons.

Viana, P., & Soares, M. (2016). A hybrid recommendation system for news in a mobile environment. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics (pp. 1-9).

Viana, P., & Soares, M. (2017). A hybrid approach for personalized news recommendation in a mobility scenario using long-short user interest. International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 26(02), 1760012.

Vivian, J., & Maurin, P. J. (2012). The media of mass communication (p. 0). Toronto, ON, Canada: Pearson Canada.

Wahl-Jorgensen, K., & Hanitzsch, T. (Eds.). (2009). The handbook of journalism studies. Routledge.

Wall, M. (2018). Citizen journalism: Practices, propaganda, pedagogy. Routledge.

Wattenberg, B. J. (1985). The good news is the bad news is wrong. American Enterprise Institute.

Widiasri, D. A., Budiarsa, M., Sudipa, I. N., & Satyawati, M. S. (2019). Speech act in Indonesian language teaching: an ethnography communication study. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 5(5), 55-62.

Williams, A. E. (2012). Trust or bust?: Questioning the relationship between media trust and news attention. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(1), 116-131.

Wolfsfeld, G., & Gadi, W. (1997). Media and political conflict: News from the Middle East (Vol. 10). cambridge university Press.

Woolgar, S. (Ed.). (2002). Virtual society?: technology, cyberbole, reality. OUP Oxford.

Wurzel, J. S. (1988). Toward Multicuturalism: A Reader in Multicultural Education. Intercultural Press, PO Box 768, Yarmouth, ME 04096..

Yanti, A. L. (2018). Impersonating Fishermen: Illegal Fishing and the Entry of Illegal Immigrants as Transnational Crime. Journal of Indonesian Legal Studies, 3(2), 273.

Yeo, S. L., & Pang, A. (2017). Asian multiculturalism in communication: Impact of culture in the practice of public relations in Singapore. Public Relations Review, 43(1), 112-122.

Zheng, B., Liu, H., & Davison, R. M. (2018). Exploring the relationship between corporate reputation and the public’s crisis communication on social media. Public Relations Review, 44(1), 56-64.

Zillmann, D., & Vorderer, P. (Eds.). (2000). Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal. Routledge.



How to Cite

Larisu, Z., & Mona, L. (2022). Commodification of media in helping public relations performance in the regional development sector in Indonesia: Multicultural communication humanization. Linguistics and Culture Review, 6(S3), 158-175.



Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)