The ways of self-reliance development: comparative study of the old man and the sea and Robinson Crusoe


  • Nuriadi University of Mataram, Indonesia
  • Boniesta Z. Melani University of Mataram, Indonesia


comparative study, development, old man, Robinson Crusoe, sea, self-reliance, way


This article discusses the similarities in developing self-reliance by the two main characters in two novels, Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea (i.e., Santiago) and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe (i.e., Robinson Crusoe). Qualitative analysis with the frame of dynamic structuralism theory of Jan Mukarovsky discovered that both protagonist characters, Santiago and Crusoe, are doing several things as their ways to rebuild and develop their self-reliance in coping with several obstacles. To develop his self-reliance, Santiago recollects his past experiences, identifies himself as a powerful figure, and recognizes certain factors supporting his struggle, while Crusoe performs certain efforts to extend his survival, and recognizes God’s power in his life.  Despite their different ways to build self-reliance, the two figures both show optimism to survive their odd and unfortunate yet valuable experience. Reflecting on Santiago and Crusoe’s life experiences, self-reliance is a pivotal attribute for ones’ survival and success and serves as a mental asset to face the common under-pressured life.


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How to Cite

Nuriadi, N., & Melani, B. Z. (2021). The ways of self-reliance development: comparative study of the old man and the sea and Robinson Crusoe. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S2), 1533-1547.



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