Need analysis on the usage of multimodal reading assessment among secondary school teachers


  • Bhavarita Subramaniam Faculty of Education, UKM, Malaysia
  • Azlina Abdul Aziz Faculty of Education, UKM, Malaysia
  • Mohd Effendi Ewan Mohd Matore Faculty of Education, UKM, Malaysia


multimodal, reading assessment, secondary school, strategically developed, teachers


Strategically developed assessment rubrics are essential to ascertain fair and consistent assessment grading. Nevertheless, devising assessment rubrics poses certain drawbacks as scores that determine students’ capability are awarded holistically. In order to assure that students’ grades indeed reflect their current capability and to provide effective feedback on aspects that demand improvement, rubrics must accurately evaluate and measure the performances displayed by students. Hence, this study identified the suitability and acceptability of multimodal reading assessment upon assessing reading skills among secondary school students. This study, which involved English language teachers from several schools located across Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, had adopted the survey research method to design a multimodal reading assessment rubric and to obtain teachers’ views on multimodal reading and viewing (MMRV). The study outcomes signified that although the teachers acknowledged and were aware of the advantages of applying MMRV, the absence of such rubric that specifically assesses MMRV seemed to limit this practice in classroom. This study concludes that it is imperative to formulate a comprehensive MMRV-based rubric to enable teachers assess their students’ reading skills in a more accurate manner.


Download data is not yet available.


Bond, L., Butler, H., Thomas, L., Carlin, J., Glover, S., Bowes, G., & Patton, G. (2007). Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. Journal of adolescent health, 40(4), 357-e9.

Brooks, V. (2002). Assessment in secondary schools. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Campbell, A. J. (2003). Creating customer knowledge competence: managing customer relationship management programs strategically. Industrial marketing management, 32(5), 375-383.

Carr, A. S., & Pearson, J. N. (1999). Strategically managed buyer–supplier relationships and performance outcomes. Journal of operations management, 17(5), 497-519.

Delgado, D. G. L., Delgado, F. E. A., & Quiroz, P. M. Z. (2019). Permanent application of diagnostic assessment on learning teaching process. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 5(4), 34-45.

Dutta, S. K. (2013). Statistical techniques for forensic accounting: Understanding the theory and application of data analysis. FT Press.

Egorychev, A. M., Akhtyan, A. G., Ananishnev, V. M., Levina, I. D., Suyskaya, V. S., & Tyutchenko, A. M. (2021). Social dimension of modern higher school teachers` personality. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S3), 1606-1618.

Kehlet, H., & Wilmore, D. W. (2002). Multimodal strategies to improve surgical outcome. The American journal of surgery, 183(6), 630-641.

Kong, H. S., Musa, K. H., Kasim, Z. M., & Sani, N. A. (2019). Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Properties of Leaves and Stems of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau from Two Herbal Farms of Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. ASM Science Journal, 12, 1-13.

Laidra, K., Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Personality and individual differences, 42(3), 441-451.

Lee, S. S., Azman, H., & Noor, N. M. (2018). A responsive pedagogical initiative for multimodal oral presentation skills: An action research study. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature®, 24(2).

Mansor, A. Z., & Ibrahim, R. (2012). Research Methodology as Core Curriculum for General Studies.

Marcotte, A. M., & Hintze, J. M. (2009). Incremental and predictive utility of formative assessment methods of reading comprehension. Journal of school psychology, 47(5), 315-335.

Mardiana-Jansar, K., & Hanafiah, M. M. (2020). Visual Communication Technique To Enhance Teaching And Learning Processes In Quantitative Analysis And Instrumentation Course. Acta Informatica Malaysia (AIM), 4(1), 7-9.

Petersen, S. E., & Ostendorf, M. (2009). A machine learning approach to reading level assessment. Computer speech & language, 23(1), 89-106.

Rinartha, K., & Suryasa, W. (2017). Comparative study for better result on query suggestion of article searching with MySQL pattern matching and Jaccard similarity. In 2017 5th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Sabilah, F. (2016). Teaching techniques and instructional media in presenting intercultural awareness in English class of primary school students. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 2(4), 112-121. Retrieved from

Smith, M. H., & Smith, D. (2007). Implementing strategically aligned performance measurement in small firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 106(2), 393-408.

Symmank, R., & Spethmann, P. (2018). Management Research by Practitioners: DBA Handbook. BoD–Books on Demand.

Tshering, G., Dorji, P. W., Chaijaroenkul, W., & Na-Bangchang, K. (2018). Biomarkers for the diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma: a systematic review. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 98(6), 1788-1797.

Turk, M. (2014). Multimodal interaction: A review. Pattern recognition letters, 36, 189-195.

Unianu, E. M. (2012). Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 900-904.

Villa, F. T., & Tulod, R. C. (2021). Correlating instructional leadership practices of school administrators with teachers competencies. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 83-99.

Vocroix, L. (2021). Morphology in micro linguistics and macro linguistics. Macrolinguistics and Microlinguistics, 2(1), 1–20. Retrieved from

Wong, J. C., Xiang, L., Ngoi, K. H., Chia, C. H., Jin, K. S., & Ree, M. (2020). Quantitative structural analysis of polystyrene nanoparticles using synchrotron X-ray scattering and dynamic light scattering. Polymers, 12(2), 477.



How to Cite

Subramaniam, B., Aziz, A. A., & Matore, M. E. E. M. (2021). Need analysis on the usage of multimodal reading assessment among secondary school teachers. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 1632-1639.



Research Articles