Type of instructions performed in online teaching and learning



  • Fitrotul Mufaridah English Education Department, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jember, Jember, East Java Indonesia


21st competencies, high order thinking, motivating interaction, online instruction, teacher role, teaching-learning model


Teaching and learning has changed and performed new challenge to provide attracting instruct for students to be active in online learning. The way to run the process of teaching and learning are modified. The use of technology in communicating the teaching-learning material is challenging. Different types of instructions motivate different to students to follow the online class activities. The communication delivered through the instructions becomes a key to guide the process of online teaching and learning. How the instructions performed by the teacher create interesting interaction in online learning. So, it is interesting to analyze further how the instructions work to activate the students’ involvement in online teaching-learning. This research is to describe how the types of instructions performed in online teaching and learning based on the implementation of teaching model. The data is collected from documents of lesson instruction design. This research uses qualitative approach to analyze the data. The result of the research is analyzed related to the types of instructions used in processing the learning activites through instructions provided by the teacher. The conclusion found three types of appropriate instructions to motivate and activate students in the process of online teaching and learning.


Download data is not yet available.


Anderson, T. (Ed.). (2008). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press.

Bartley, S. J., & Golek, J. H. (2004). Evaluating the cost effectiveness of online and face-to-face instruction. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 7(4), 167-175.

Burgess, M. L., Slate, J. R., Rojas-LeBouef, A., & LaPrairie, K. (2010). Teaching and learning in Second Life: Using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model to support online instruction with graduate students in instructional technology. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 84-88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.12.003

Chu, S. K. W., Reynolds, R. B., Tavares, N. J., Notari, M., & Lee, C. W. Y. (2016). 21st century skills development through inquiry-based learning: From theory to practice. In 21st Century Skills Development Through Inquiry-Based Learning: From Theory to Practice.

Cresswell, J. W. (2012). Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Educational Research. https://doi. org/10.4135/9781483349435, (10).

Diachenko, A., Vusyk, H., Bielova, Y., Shurdenko, M., & Titenko, O. (2021). The educational role of ethnodesign graphic function in practical out-of-classroom activities in art institutions of higher education. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 1510-1521. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS1.1623

Donald, A., Lucy, J., & Christine, K. S. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education Eight Edition. Canada. Wdsworth.

Eiriksdottir, E., & Catrambone, R. (2011). Procedural instructions, principles, and examples: How to structure instructions for procedural tasks to enhance performance, learning, and transfer. Human factors, 53(6), 749-770.

Haenen, J. (2001). Outlining the teaching–learning process: Piotr Gal'perin's contribution. Learning and instruction, 11(2), 157-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(00)00020-7

Khan, F. M. A., & Masood, M. (2015). The effectiveness of an interactive multimedia courseware with cooperative mastery approach in enhancing higher order thinking skills in learning cellular respiration. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 176, 977-984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.567

Ko, S., & Rossen, S. (2017). Teaching online: A practical guide. Routledge.

Learning, D. (2014). 6 Models of blended learning. Pridobljeno, 17(12), 2014.

Lukman, .-., Abdulhak, I., & Wahyudin, D. (2016). Learning model development to improve students’ oral communication skill: (a research and development study on english as a foreign language (EFL) subject in all junior high schools in north of lombok, west nusa tenggara province). International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 2(2), 147-166.

Lunenberg, M., Korthagen, F., & Swennen, A. (2007). The teacher educator as a role model. Teaching and teacher education, 23(5), 586-601. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2006.11.001

Maddison, T., & Kumaran, M. (Eds.). (2016). Distributed learning: pedagogy and technology in online information literacy instruction. Chandos Publishing.

Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook.

Muilenburg, L. Y., & Berge, Z. L. (2005). Student barriers to online learning: A factor analytic study. Distance education, 26(1), 29-48.

Pilten, G. (2010). Evaluation of the skills of 5th grade primary school students’ high-order thinking levels in reading. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1326-1331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.195

Pineida, F. O. (2011). Competencies for the 21st century: Integrating ICT to life, school and economical development. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 28, 54-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.011

Poplavskyi, M. M. (2021). Teacher as a media figure in modern higher education: A competence-based approach. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S4), 904-914. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS4.1772

Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan, 94(2), 8-13.

Sanderson, P. E. (2002). E-Learning: strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age.

Sharma, K. (2011). The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century?: ICT as A Change Agent for Education. VSRD International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology.

Shomirzayev, S. (2021). National followers in the students use of educational technologies instruction of interests. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 7(3), 152-157. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijllc.v7n3.1508

Silver, S. L., & Nickel, L. T. (2005). Are online tutorials effective? A comparison of online and classroom library instruction methods. Research Strategies, 20(4), 389-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resstr.2006.12.012

Teo, P. (2019). Teaching for the 21st century: A case for dialogic pedagogy. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 21, 170-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2019.03.009

Tiberghien, A. (1994). Modeling as a basis for analyzing teaching-learning situations. Learning and instruction, 4(1), 71-87. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-4752(94)90019-1

Weiner, C. (2003). Key ingredients to online learning: Adolescent students study in cyberspace–the nature of the study. International Journal on E-learning, 2(3), 44-50.

Widana, I.K., Dewi, G.A.O.C., Suryasa, W. (2020). Ergonomics approach to improve student concentration on learning process of professional ethics. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 12(7), 429-445.

Xu, B., Chen, N. S., & Chen, G. (2020). Effects of teacher role on student engagement in WeChat-Based online discussion learning. Computers & Education, 157, 103956. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2020.103956



How to Cite

Mufaridah, F. (2021). Type of instructions performed in online teaching and learning. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S3), 1250-1257. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS3.1836



Research Articles