Female university teachers’ realizations of the speech act of refusal

Cross-cultural and interlanguage perspectives

https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS2.1821

Authors

  • Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Jawaher Nasser Alhaqbani Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Sofia Adan Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Keywords:

cross-cultural, interlanguage, pragmatics, refusal, speech act

Abstract

The current study investigates how university teachers decline students’ requests and examines the teachers’ refusal strategies from cross-cultural and interlanguage perspectives. To this end, 60 female university teachers at a private Saudi university participated in 10 role-plays which involved them in declining several students’ requests. The participants consisted of three groups; 20 native speakers of American English (NSE), 20 native speakers of Saudi Arabic (NSA) and 20 native speakers of Saudi Arabic who completed the role-plays in English as non-native speakers of the language (NNSE). The role-plays were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data were coded using Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Weltz’s (1990) refusal model and Trosborg’s (1995) model of internal modifiers. The results revealed the teachers’ general preference for the use of indirect over direct refusal strategies and the American teachers’ stronger tendency to use indirect and mitigating internal modifiers than Arab teachers. The results also showed that the cross-cultural differences between the American and the Arab teachers were limited and that there was no effect for negative pragmatic transfer for the NNSE. The results are interpreted in terms of relevant theoretical models and the existing literature.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Al-Ghamdi, N., & Alrefaee, Y. (2020). The role of social status in the realization of refusal speech act: a cross-cultural study. The Asian ESP Journal.

Alhaidari, A. A. (2009). The art of saying no: A cross-cultural pragmatic comparison of Saudi and Australian refusal appropriateness applied in academic settings (Doctoral dissertation).

Al-Issa, A. S. (1998). Sociopragmatic transfer in the performance of refusals by Jordanian EFL learners: Evidence and motivating factors. Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Allami, H., & Naeimi, A. (2011). A cross-linguistic study of refusals: An analysis of pragmatic competence development in Iranian EFL learners. Journal of pragmatics, 43(1), 385-406.

Al-Mahrooqi, R., & Al-Aghbari, K. (2016). Refusal strategies among Omani EFL students. SAGE Open, 6(4), 2158244016672907.

Alrefaee, Y., & Al-Ghamdi, N. (2019). Refusals among Yemeni EFL Learners: A Study of Negative Pragmatic Transfer and Its Relation to Proficiency. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 25.

Alrefaee, Y., & Al-Ghamdi, N. (2019). Refusals among Yemeni EFL Learners: A Study of Negative Pragmatic Transfer and Its Relation to Proficiency. Asian EFL Journal Research Articles, 25.

Al-Shalawi, H. G. (1997). Refusal strategies in Saudi and American cultures. Michigan State University.

Al-Shboul, Y., & Huwari, I. F. (2016). A comparative study of Jordanian Arabic and American English refusal strategies. British journal of English linguistics, 4(3), 50-62.

Altheeby, M. (2018). Differences in the pragmatic competence of Saudi EFL and ESL learners (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).

Araújo, A. D. (2012). Academic genres in university contexts: An investigation of students’ book reviews writing as classroom assignments. International advances in writing research: Cultures, places, measures, 319-333.

Atmowardoyo, H., & Sakkir, G. (2021). Effects of best-practice based materials in receptive language learning behaviours in improving receptive language skills. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 1313-1334. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS1.1604

Bardovi?Harlig, K., & Dörnyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic versus grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. Tesol Quarterly, 32(2), 233-259.

Beebe, L. M., Takahashi, T., & Uliss-Weltz, R. (1990). Pragmatic transfer in ESL refusals. Developing communicative competence in a second language, 5573.

Bella, S. (2011). Mitigation and politeness in Greek invitation refusals: Effects of length of residence in the target community and intensity of interaction on non-native speakers’ performance. Journal of pragmatics, 43(6), 1718-1740.

Bella, S. (2014). Developing the ability to refuse: A cross-sectional study of Greek FL refusals. Journal of pragmatics, 61, 35-62.

Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., Perwien, A. R., Crosby, R. D., Kushner, M. G., Thuras, P. D., & Last, C. G. (2000). Imipramine plus cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of school refusal. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(3), 276-283. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200003000-00008

Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1978). Universals in language usage: Politeness phenomena. In Questions and politeness: Strategies in social interaction (pp. 56-311). Cambridge University Press.

Brown, P., Levinson, S. C., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage (Vol. 4). Cambridge university press.

Caffi, C., & Janney, R. W. (1994). Toward a pragmatics of emotive communication. Journal of pragmatics, 22(3-4), 325-373. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(94)90115-5

Cao, J. (2005). A pragmatic analysis of the speech act of criticizing in primary and junior high school Chinese lecturer-student talk (Doctoral dissertation, Northeast Normal University).

Chen, X., Ye, L., & Zhang, Y. (1995). Refusing in Chinese. Pragmatics of Chinese as native and target language, 119-163.

Cogo, A., & Dewey, M. (2006). Efficiency in ELF communication: From pragmatic motives to lexico-grammatical innovation. Nordic journal of English studies, 5(2), 59-93.

Darwish, A. (2018). Socio-pragmatic Transfer in Egyptian Refusals. The Athens Institute For Education And Research, 32.

Edda, W. (2017). The mixed game model: A holistic theory. In The Routledge Handbook of Language and Dialogue (pp. 174-194). Routledge.

Egger, H. L., Costello, J. E., & Angold, A. (2003). School refusal and psychiatric disorders: A community study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(7), 797-807. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CHI.0000046865.56865.79

El-Dakhs, D. A. S. (2018). Saying “Yes” and “No” to requests: Is it the same in Egyptian and Saudi Arabic?. Language and Dialogue, 8(2), 235-260.

El-Dakhs, D. A. S., Ambreen, F., Zaheer, M., & Gusarova, Y. (2019). A pragmatic analysis of the speech act of criticizing in university teacher-student talk: The case of English as a lingua franca. Pragmatics, 29(4), 493-520.

Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2002). Refusals in Spanish and English: A cross-cultural study of politeness strategies among speakers of Mexican Spanish, American English, and American learners of Spanish as a foreign language. University of Minnesota.

Félix-Brasdefer, J. C. (2006). Linguistic politeness in Mexico: Refusal strategies among male speakers of Mexican Spanish. Journal of pragmatics, 38(12), 2158-2187.

Haverkate, H. (1990). A speech act analysis of irony. Journal of pragmatics, 14(1), 77-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(90)90065-L

Henstock, M. I. (2003). Refusals: A language and cultural barrier between Americans and Japanese. Purdue University.

Hiraga, M. K., & Turner, J. M. (1996). Differing perceptions of face in British and Japanese academic settings. Language Sciences, 18(3-4), 605-627.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.

Howatt, A. P. R., & Widdowson, H. G. (2004). A history of ELT. Oxford University Press.

Hyland, F., & Hyland, K. (2001). Sugaring the pill: Praise and criticism in written feedback. Journal of second language writing, 10(3), 185-212.

Iliadi, P. L. L., & Larina, T. V. (2017). Refusal strategies in English and Russian. RUDN Journal of Language Studies, Semiotics and Semantics, 8(3), 531-542.

Kasper, G. (2001). Four perspectives on L2 pragmatic development. Applied linguistics, 22(4), 502-530.

Kealey, D. J. (1989). A study of cross-cultural effectiveness: Theoretical issues, practical applications. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 13(3), 387-428. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(89)90019-9

Keshavarz, M. H., Eslami, Z. R., & Ghahreman, V. (2006). Pragmatic transfer and Iranian EFL refusals: A cross-cultural perspective of Persian and English. K. Bardovi-Harlig, JC.

Kwon, J. (2004). Expressing refusals in Korean and in American English.

Locher, M. A., & Bolander, B. (2019). Ethics in pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics, 145, 83-90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.011

Lü, L. (2018). Role of Email in Intercultural Communication of Criticism in a Chinese English Curriculum Reform Context. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 193-207.

Machery, E., Mallon, R., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. P. (2004). Semantics, cross-cultural style. Cognition, 92(3), B1-B12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.003

Menaka, G., & Sankar, G. (2019). The language learning assessment using technology for the second language learners. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Culture, 5(4), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.21744/ijllc.v5n4.674

Morkus, N. (2014). Refusals in Egyptian Arabic and American English. Journal of Pragmatics, 70, 86-107.

Nguyen, T. T. M. (2013). An exploratory study of criticism realization strategies used by NS and NNS of New Zealand English.

O’Keeffe, A., Clancy, B., & Adolphs, S. (2019). Introducing pragmatics in use. Routledge.

Riekkinen, N. (2010). “This is not criticizing, but…. Softening criticizing: The use of lexical hedges in academic spoken interaction. Helsinki English Studies, 6, 75-87.

Rinartha, K., & Suryasa, W. (2017). Comparative study for better result on query suggestion of article searching with MySQL pattern matching and Jaccard similarity. In 2017 5th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Salam, E. D. D. A. (2020). The Art of Saying “No” to University Students: A Pragmatic Analysis of the Speech Act of Refusal in Teacher-Student Role-Plays. Journal of Language and Education, 6(4 (24)).

Schegloff, E. A. (1988). Presequences and indirection: Applying speech act theory to ordinary conversation. Journal of pragmatics, 12(1), 55-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-2166(88)90019-7

Shishavan, H. B., & Sharifian, F. (2016). The refusal speech act in a cross-cultural perspective: A study of Iranian English-language learners and Anglo-Australian speakers. Language & Communication, 47, 75-88.

Soler, E. A. (2002). Relationship between teacher-led versus learners’ interaction and the development of pragmatics in the EFL classroom. International Journal of Educational Research, 37(3-4), 359-377.

Stewart, E. C., & Bennett, M. J. (1991). Cultural patterns. A cross-cultural perspective.

Takahashi, S. (2005). Noticing in task performance and learning outcomes: A qualitative analysis of instructional effects in interlanguage pragmatics. System, 33(3), 437-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2005.06.006

Takimoto, M. (2012). Metapragmatic discussion in interlanguage pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(10), 1240-1253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2012.05.007

Tang, C. (2016). Managing criticisms in US-based and Taiwan-based reality talent contests: A cross-linguistic comparison. Pragmatics, 26(1), 111-136.

Trosborg, A. (2011). Interlanguage pragmatics: Requests, complaints, and apologies (Vol. 7). Walter de Gruyter.

Verzella, M., & Tommaso, L. (2020). The pragmatics of refusing a request in Italian and American English: A comparative study. Discourse and Interaction, 13(1), 92-112.

Vysotki, V. M., Patalashko, E. V., Stepanenko, V. E., Makarova, T. V., & Balabanova, I. A. (2021). Language as a communication resource and its place in the representation of world practices: philosophical and linguistic approach. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S3), 574-584. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS3.1621

Wannaruk, A. (2008). Pragmatic transfer in Thai EFL refusals. RELC journal, 39(3), 318-337.

Weigand, E. (2009). Language as dialogue: from rules to principles of probability (Vol. 5). Weigand, E. (2010). Language as dialogue.

Weigand, E. (2010). Dialogue the Mixed Game (Vol. 10). John Benjamins Publishing.

Weigand, E. (2015). Dialogue in the Stream of Life. Language and Dialogue, 5(2), 197-223.

Zong, F., & Zhen, S. X. (2021). The link between language and thought. Macrolinguistics and Microlinguistics, 2(1), 12–27. Retrieved from https://mami.nyc/index.php/journal/article/view/12

Published

2021-11-21

How to Cite

El-Dakhs, D. A. S., Alhaqbani, J. N., & Adan, S. (2021). Female university teachers’ realizations of the speech act of refusal: Cross-cultural and interlanguage perspectives. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S2), 1308-1328. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS2.1821

Issue

Section

Research Articles