Lexical semantic activation in bilinguals: evidence through blocked naming task



  • Saddam H. M. Issa Hajjah University, College of Education, Hajjah, Yemen
  • Maryam Eissa Bajiri Department of English, Kuvempu University, India
  • Khaled A. Z. Alyamani Community College in Abqaiq, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
  • Abhishek B. P. Associate Professor and Research Coordinator, Nitte Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mangalore, India


facilitation, interference, lexicon, retrieval


The retrieval of the most appropriate word from the lexicon is referred to as lexical semantic activation. Bilinguals are those who use at least two languages and can be classified based on various degree of proficiency in both languages. The facilitation and interference access that takes place during lexical access can be found out through blocked naming task. The two language representation and its processing are some important aspects to be considered in bilinguals. The general constrains on bilingualism processing models can be also explored through the researches on lexical semantic activation. The proficiency of the second language can determine the inhibitory or facilitator effect on dominant language. The present study aimed at knowing the effect of the language not in use on the lexical semantic activation of the language in use. Through blocked naming task showed that the reaction time for naming numbers was more in first language than second language. The accuracy in naming numbers in first language was less compared to first language.


Download data is not yet available.


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies.

Belke, E., Meyer, A. S., & Damian, M. F. (2005). Refractory effects in picture naming as assessed in a semantic blocking paradigm. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A, 58(4), 667-692.

Bialystok, E., Craik, F., & Luk, G. (2008). Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition, 34(4), 859.

Bouma, H. (1973). Visual interference in the parafoveal recognition of initial and final letters of words. Vision research, 13(4), 767-782. https://doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(73)90041-2

Bruno, J. F., Stachowicz, J. J., & Bertness, M. D. (2003). Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in ecology & evolution, 18(3), 119-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)00045-9

Costa, A., & Santesteban, M. (2004). Lexical access in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching in highly proficient bilinguals and L2 learners. Journal of memory and Language, 50(4), 491-511.

Damian, M. F., Vigliocco, G., & Levelt, W. J. (2001). Effects of semantic context in the naming of pictures and words. Cognition, 81(3), B77-B86.

Fertonani, A., Rosini, S., Cotelli, M., Rossini, P. M., & Miniussi, C. (2010). Naming facilitation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation. Behavioural brain research, 208(2), 311-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2009.10.030

Fowler, J. (2008). Experiential learning and its facilitation. Nurse Education Today, 28(4), 427-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2007.07.007

Hillman, A. L., & Swank, O. (2000). Why political culture should be in the lexicon of economics. European journal of political economy, 16(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0176-2680(99)00044-0

Jafarova, K. A. (2021). The role of extralinguistic factors in interlingual relations and theoretical issues of interference. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.37028/lingcure.v5n1.415

Kambarova, M. M. (2021). Semantic and functional features of lexical units in the field of architecture and construction in English and Uzbek. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(1), 64-74. https://doi.org/10.37028/lingcure.v5n1.503

Kolers, P. A. (1963). Interlingual word associations. Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior, 2(4), 291-300.

Kolers, P. A. (1966). Reading and talking bilingually. The American Journal of Psychology, 79(3), 357-376.

Lambert, W. E., Havelka, J., & Gardner, R. C. (1959). Linguistic manifestations of bilingualism. The American Journal of Psychology, 72(1), 77-82.

Lopez, M., Hicks, R. E., & Young, R. K. (1974). Retroactive inhibition in a bilingual AB, AB'paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103(1), 85.

Meyer, D. E. (1970). On the representation and retrieval of stored semantic information. Cognitive Psychology, 1(3), 242-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(70)90017-4

Navarrete, E., Del Prato, P., & Mahon, B. Z. (2012). Factors determining semantic facilitation and interference in the cyclic naming paradigm. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 38.

Noppeney, U., & Price, C. J. (2004). Retrieval of abstract semantics. Neuroimage, 22(1), 164-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.010

Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs: general and applied, 76(27), 1.

Vigliocco, G., Vinson, D. P., Damian, M. F., & Levelt, W. (2002). Semantic distance effects on object and action naming. Cognition, 85(3), B61-B69.

Whitford, V., & Titone, D. (2015). Second-language experience modulates eye movements during first-and second-language sentence reading: Evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(4), 1118.

Wu, P., Manjunath, B. S., Newsam, S., & Shin, H. D. (2000). A texture descriptor for browsing and similarity retrieval. Signal processing: Image communication, 16(1-2), 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0923-5965(00)00016-3

Wulff, D. U., De Deyne, S., Jones, M. N., Mata, R., & Aging Lexicon Consortium. (2019). New perspectives on the aging lexicon. Trends in cognitive sciences, 23(8), 686-698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2019.05.003

Xie, Q., Hong, M. H., Tan, H. L., Chen, G. X., Shi, L. P., & Chong, T. C. (2008). Fabrication of nanostructures with laser interference lithography. Journal of alloys and compounds, 449(1-2), 261-264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2006.02.115



How to Cite

Issa, S. H. M., Bajiri, M. E., Alyamani, K. A. Z., & Abhishek B. P. (2021). Lexical semantic activation in bilinguals: evidence through blocked naming task. Linguistics and Culture Review, 5(S1), 860-866. https://doi.org/10.21744/lingcure.v5nS1.1470



Research Articles