http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/issue/feed Linguistics and Culture Review 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Prof. Alexander V. Obskov (Editorial Contact) editor@lingcure.org Open Journal Systems <p>Linguistics and Culture Review is published by&nbsp;American Linguist Association.</p> http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/45 Political language variation: stylistic based study 2021-01-12T06:18:37+00:00 Ida Bagus Putrayasa ibputra@gmail.com <p>This study aimed at finding out the figures of speech used by the government in the political language variation and the purposes to which they serve. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that there are sixteen types of figures of speech contained in the political language variation, for example, euphemism, repetition, parallelism, personification, parable, anticlimax, sarcasm, trope, hyperbole, pleonasm, climax, antithesis, synecdoche, anaphor, allusion, and metonymy. The purposes of their uses are to vary sentences, to show respect, to express something in a polite manner, and to give an emphasis or stress meanings. The suggestion made in relation to the uses of the figures of speech in political language variation is for the authority (government) to use words or phrases that are simple to make it easy for the people to understand.</p> 2021-01-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/150 Politicizing flight in Edward Albee’s seascape 2021-02-24T00:32:34+00:00 Zied Khamari khamarizied@yahoo.fr <p>In recent years, scholars and critics have become increasingly interested in the view that art is a means to escape from the existent reality and the difficulties of modern civilization. Many writers emphasized in their literary works the need to be emancipated from the restrictions of modern society and underlined the idea that flight is the ultimate way to avoid the complexities of contemporary life. Edward Albee, for example, addressed the issue of flight in his drama, particularly the sociopolitical and artistic scopes of escape. In his <em>Seascape</em>, Albee presents a multifaceted perception of flight juxtaposing the social with the literary and the political with the artistic. In the postmodern political thought too, there is a similar tendency that valorizes the struggle for the liberation of the individual from all forms of repression and domination exerted by sociopolitical forces. Gilles Deleuze &amp; Félix Guattari (2005), for instance, criticize the constraints and rules that power authorities use to control the individual and call instead for freeing humans from all authoritarian policies. This paper, then, seeks to examine Albee’s staging of flight from the Deleuzo-Guattarian perspective in an attempt to elucidate his complex yet refined dramatization of escape in his play <em>Seascape</em>.</p> 2021-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/81 Balinese verbs related to water : metalanguage approach 2021-01-28T05:58:57+00:00 I Nengah Sudipa nengahsudipa@yahoo.co.id I Nyoman Weda Kusuma wedakusuma08@gmail.com Made Henra Dwikarmawan Sudipa henradwikarmawan@gmail.com Komang Dian Puspita Candra miss_puspita@yahoo.com <p>This article aims at displaying the way how to map the meaning of Balinese verbs related to water. The data are oral and written forms collected by observation, interview, and taking-note. The oral language was collected from the key-informant in three villages within two regencies in Bali, namely Klungkung and Buleleng. The written data was observed from the 4 novels using the modern Balinese language. The collected data was furthermore analyzed by the Metalanguage approach which manages to map all the meaning in the form of language description. Metalanguage approach based upon <em>entity, process, instrument, </em>and<em> result</em> is able to detect the subtle meaning difference among the verbs having a similar semantic field. From the scale of time-stability, the result shows that the mapping of action verbs: <em>anyud, ngelangi, mandus, silem, mambuh</em> imply the time reference change rapidly. The mapping of process verbs: <em> aad, tiis, éncéh, </em>and<em> beku</em> carry the time reference is less stable. The mapping of state verbs: <em> bedak, belus, </em>and<em> tuduh</em> is considered to imply the time reference is very stable.</p> 2021-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/82 The linguistic impact of coronavirus on online service offers in Spain as well as France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK 2021-02-20T00:35:02+00:00 Joachim Grzega joachim.grzega@ku.de <p>Service offers from online platforms in Spain, Germany, Italy, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the UK since the COVID-19-related lockdowns in March 2020 are analyzed and related to classical pragmatic nomenclatures. As a result, COVID-19-related lexemes are used particularly in Spain, hardly in the Netherlands, and to a medium degree in Germany, France, Italy, and the UK. Often, such phrases are expressive/phatic, occasionally with an appeal to pity, just to promote positive connotations, not adding anything to the nature of the service. COVID-related lexemes are used, albeit rarely, to say that there is something positive in the crisis. More frequently, these lexemes are employed, in Spain, Germany, and Italy, to explain the motivation for the service offer. In all countries, the lexemes are (semantically superfluously?) used to say that the service offered is free from danger (sometimes being pseudo-assertive). In Spain, covid-lexemes are very typically used to show that the service supplier is free from danger (even in headlines and first sentences), in various kinds of wordings, which mostly do not support the pretended message from a strictly medical point of view: beyond classical terminology, such cases could be termed <em>jargon-related conventional pseudo-implications</em>.</p> 2021-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/415 The role of extralinguistic factors in interlingual relations and theoretical issues of interference 2021-05-11T02:39:35+00:00 Kamala Avadir Jafarova kamacafarovaadu@gmail.com <p>The article is devoted to the theoretical issues of interference that arise from interlingual relations. As interlingual relations are becoming more prominent in the sociocultural context of the modern globalized world, research on this topic is particularly relevant. This type of research is also relevant because it reflects not only the linguistic point of view, but also many aspects of sociolinguistics. The linguistic, and sociolinguistic interpretation of issues such as interference, bilingualism and diglossia in the research conducted in the framework of the article determines the scientific novelty of the research. The problems of bilingualism and diglossia are of particular importance in modern linguistics. The history of bilingualism goes back to early times of language policy but cannot be traced back to the pre-state period. In fact, language policy and the establishment of the state is crucial for the development of bilingualism as it arises first after the establishment of the state and a single language. In these pre-historical times, we can see it as the language of only one of the tribes received official status, and the remaining tribes being forced to learn the dominant language. Other high-ranking tribes became bilingual by learning the language of the ruling tribe.</p> 2021-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/451 Bilingualism and its importance in human life 2021-05-11T13:32:42+00:00 Jamila Sharipovna Djumabaeva djumabaevajamila@gmail.com Mavluda Yuldashbayevna Kengboyeva mavluda882020@gmail.com <p>This article contains bilingualism and its importance in human life, as well as the benefits of bilingualism for children, skills and recommendations for identifying their ability to be bilingual, or to develop their language skills. Thus, children have the ability to accept external stimuli, creating them to form their own thoughts in order to recognize similar sounds which together form words and phrases that allow them to easily express thoughts and feelings over the years<em>.</em></p> 2021-02-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/503 Semantic and functional features of lexical units in the field of architecture and construction in English and Uzbek 2021-05-11T14:15:59+00:00 Mukhayyo Muydinjanovna Kambarova mukhayyo.kambarova@gmail.com <p>This article is dedicated to the study of one of the historically and more slowly folded boards of modern lexicon and terminology of architecture, which plays a special role in the life of society, both ancient and modern. The architectural term system is also investigated, namely: the processes of deformation, transformation, and the specifics of functioning in the language of poetic texts, i.e. outside the scope of the scientific context. The architectural lexicon is an independent segment in the naive scientific picture of people, speakers of the language, and therefore it is of interest to both linguists and non-specialists in the philological sphere.</p> 2021-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/726 Arabic as foreign language learning in pandemic COVID-19 as perceived by students and teachers 2021-06-09T07:32:51+00:00 Mahyudin Ritonga mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Martin Kustati mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Meliza Budiarti mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Ahmad Lahmi mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Musda Asmara mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Rahadian Kurniawan mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Neli Putri mahyudinritonga@gmail.com Endri Yenti mahyudinritonga@gmail.com <p>Teaching and learning process using mobile application becomes one of alternative tools to substitute face-to-face learning during Pandemic Covid-19. The lecture process during the period has been experienced since March 2020 until the end of the even semester of the academic year 2019/2020. There were various obstacles felt by lecturers and students in the courses. Under normal conditions, learning Arabic as a foreign language is still faced with various problems. Since, there are no specific studies in this issues that have been conducted by experts for Indonesian context, we are interested to identify the perception of students and lecturers on the quality of Arabic teaching and learning process. This research uses qualitative method where the sources of data are students and lecturers of Arabic language education study program Faculty of Islamic Studies, Muhammadiyah University of West Sumatra. The data collection taken from interview by phone. The finding showed that the students and lecturers' perceptions of the quality of the online learning process are negative. Then, students’ and lecturers' perceptions of the quality of online Arabic learning outcomes are negative.</p> 2021-06-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/835 Language: a ‘mirror’ of the culture and its application English language teaching 2021-06-10T13:22:25+00:00 Hartono Hartono ahdihassan441@gmail.com Suparto Suparto soeparto@umm.ac.id Ahdi Hassan ahdihassan441@gmail.com <p>This article is intended to highlight the linguistic principle proposed by anthropological linguists, “Language is a mirror of the culture.” The purpose of study attempts to explore foreign language teaching and learning from the perspective of language shapes thought and to improve language learning through a cross a cross-cultural communication. The first part of this article, the linguistic principle, is reflected in the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis or the Whorfian hypothesis briefly highlighted. Second part focuses on the practical use of the Whorfian hypothesis for teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL), especially cross culture understanding (CCU) and the English teaching for specific purposes (ESP).</p> 2021-06-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1029 Comparative analysis: to and ni as case particles in Japanese 2021-06-14T07:47:44+00:00 Ngurah Indra Pradhana indra_pradana@unud.ac.id I Gede Oeinada gede.oeinada@unud.ac.id <p>This study focuses on particles To and Ni as case particles that function to express the relationship between nouns and predicates in a sentence focusing on the comparative analysis of the two case particles. Based on Tsujimura's opinion, it can be said that in Japanese, case particles are part of a phrase. Case particle is related to the function of the words in the sentence. The method used to analyze the data is Agih method (distributional method). Advanced analysis techniques with substitution techniques were applied in this study. This technique is used to study a case particle in the Japanese sentence structure. This research produces several things that are expected to be helpful to readers. To and Ni case particles can replace each other for the context of sentences that have the following meanings: Pairs Meaning, Translative Meaning, Accusative Meaning, and Ablative Meaning. But on the other hand, To and Ni as case particles can not substitution each other. Especially sentences with the following meanings: accusative meaning, commitative meaning, partner meaning, citation meaning, alatif meaning, purpose meaning, time markers meaning, diathesis on passive sentences, diathesis on causative sentences, dative meaning, and locative meaning.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1062 Information and communication activity of students when writing a course work on linguistics 2021-06-17T03:44:57+00:00 Valeria Koroliova valeria.korolyova2015@gmail.com Viktoriia Grechenko victoriagrechenko@gmail.com Mykola Kovalchuk kovalmsav@gmail.com Valeriia Samoilenko valeriasam20@gmail.com Tetiana Shevchenko t77she@gmail.com Viktoriia Zaitseva victoriya-zaitseva@i.ua <p>The experience of using information space in the process of students’ work over a course paper in linguistics has been examined in the article. The importance of information and communication technologies in this type of educational activity is determined. There are three levels of students’ information and communication activities depending on the development of the students’ information competence and the involvement of information and communication technologies as the main and auxiliary resources for writing a course paper. Adaptive, productive and creative levels of information and communication activities are highlighted. The type of the above-mentioned student actively engages various online platforms for surveys, classifications and processing of the source base of research, etc. It is stressed that information resources are mostly used at the preparatory stage and less in the final one. The need to create a single information base of linguistic resources has been emphasized.</p> 2021-06-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1081 Experiential metafunction: representing environmental degradation 2021-06-22T12:47:19+00:00 Richard Oliseyenum Maledo omaledo@gmail.com Joyce Uzezi Edhere edhereuzezi18@gmail.com <p>The constant exploration and exploitation of crude oil in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria had had a negative consequential effect on the entire ecosystem of the region. This has been a source of national and international concern and has attracted the attention of scholars from several disciplines, within and outside the region. Creative writers were not left out and this had given birth to which poetry was one of its most prolific genres. Though regional, the literature in general and poetry, in particular, had attracted myriads of attention from eco-literary criticism while the language of the poems had been understudied. Therefore, this study is a linguistic analysis of Niger Delta environmental poetry. Seven poems were purposefully selected from Tanure Ojaide’s <em>Songs of Myself: Quartet</em> (2015) and Nnimo Bassey’s <em>We Thought It Was Oil but It Was Blood</em> (2002).&nbsp; The Hallidayan Transitivity system of the Experiential meaning of the clause was adopted as a linguistic framework to show how the ecological realities of the region were encoded in the structure of the clause. The study revealed that the nature of the processes and the participants’ roles aptly encoded ecological degradation in the structure of the clause.</p> 2021-06-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1108 Phonological system of dentong dialect 2021-06-23T07:07:45+00:00 Usman Usman usmanpahar@unm.ac.id Johar Amir usmanpahar@unm.ac.id Nur Asia usmanpahar@unm.ac.id <p>This study examines the phonological system of the Dentong dialect in Cenrana District, Maros Regency, South Sulawesi. The results of research on the phonological system, it is found: (1) the vowel phoneme of the Dentong dialect is the same as the vowel phoneme in Bugis, namely /i/, /e/, /?/, /a/, /u/, and /o/ and the consonant phonemes, namely /b/, /c/, /d/, /g/, /h/, /j/, /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /r/, /s/, /t/, and /? /, nevertheless the phonemes /w/ and /y/ are not found; (2) The consonant sequences are /?k/, /nd/, /mb/, /?g/, /nj/, /nr/, and /??/; (3) Geminations of consonants in the form of phonemes are /kk/, /ll/, /mm/, /nn/, /pp/, /rr/, and /ss/; (4) sound variations, namely apheresis of eliminating phonemes /m/ at the beginning of a word, syncope of eliminating phonemes /ma/ in the middle of a word, epenthesis of inserting phonemes /h/ in the middle of words, prosthesis of adding phonemes /b/ at the beginning of words, and paragog of adding phoneme /?/ at the end of a word; and (5) the symptom of sound found accompanying articulation, namely labialization in the form of sound /w/ labia-dental consonant and palatalization in the form a/y sound.</p> 2021-06-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1150 Indonesian people’s sarcasm culture: an ethnolinguistic research 2021-06-23T14:34:09+00:00 Syafruddin Syafruddin syafruddin@ecampus.ut.ac.id Aziz Thaba syafruddin@unismuh.ac.id Abdul Rahman Rahim syafruddin@unismuh.ac.id Munirah Munirah syafruddin@unismuh.ac.id Syahruddin Syahruddin syafruddin@unismuh.ac.id <p>This research investigates the semantic, pragmatic, and sociolinguistic aspects of the culture of Indonesian sarcasm, especially East Indonesia, namely South Sulawesi with an ethnolinguistic framework. Researchers collect sarcasm utterances and study the semantic aspects. Furthermore, the speech is used in a social experiment to obtain pragmatic data. Social experiments are carried out in two situations, namely the situation of friendship (close) and the situation free (situations not knowing each other). The utterance of sarcasm for Indonesians is a culture for expressing thoughts and feelings towards a particular problem, event, situation, or object (generally human). Indonesians use sarcasm in various emotional situations such as anger, disappointment, regret, even in joking situations. Semantically, Indonesian sarcasm has bad, insulting, or immoral meanings that can intimidate even hurt the feelings of others. So, pragmatically the use of sarcasm can lead to antipathy and even conflict. Self control is required to respond to sarcasm.</p> 2021-06-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1203 Challenges and opportunities towards Islamic cultured generation: socio-cultural analysis 2021-06-27T02:57:41+00:00 Amat Suroso prasetyono.hendriarto@unpak.ac.id Prasetyono Hendriarto prasetyono.hendriarto@unpak.ac.id Galuh Nashrulloh Kartika MR prasetyono.hendriarto@unpak.ac.id Petrus Jacob Pattiasina prasetyono.hendriarto@unpak.ac.id Aslan Aslan prasetyono.hendriarto@unpak.ac.id <p>This article analyzes the phenomenon and behavior of computerization among elementary school-aged children through a literature review of culture, technology, sociology, education, and sociolinguistics. The emphasis of this analysis is from the point of view of the challenges and opportunities of preparing a cultured Islamic generation. We have found the answer to the above problem through an analysis of several publications of previous findings that we obtained through an electronic search and involving analytical studies such as coding systems, data evaluation, in-depth interpretation, and data inference as final findings with the principle of validity and alignment of findings with the problems of this study. The findings show that we have summarized technological trends among elementary school-aged children into two categories. First, digital trends positively impact digital skills development at an early age under the direction and control of educational goals. Another trend is an alarming phenomenon for children's mental and mental development because technology is not involved in the educational career, such as the freedom to use technology in children. These findings should be input and awareness for Muslim educators and families.</p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1307 Impoliteness in only drunks and children tell the truth by drew Hayden Taylor 2021-07-06T05:12:48+00:00 Mariam Alawawda malawawda@ciu.edu.tr Ahdi Hassan malawawda@ciu.edu.tr <p>The present study attempts to examine (im) politeness in Only Drunks and Children Tell the Truth, a drama play written by Drew Hayden Taylor. Politeness and impoliteness have received a great amount of attention from many scholars in recent years. The study applied a classification developed by Culpeper in his latest book entitled Impoliteness: Using Language to Cause Offence. The classification mainly focuses on conventionalized and implicational impoliteness in literary texts. Drew Heyden through his characters’ conversational dialogues presents numerous (im) polite expressions to both entertain and make actors and audiences think critically. This study applied the previously mentioned classification to examine impoliteness in characters’ expressions. The findings revealed that impoliteness is a common phenomenon in the language used especially by women characters in the play. The main reason behind this is the emotional pain the characters experienced in their life. Impoliteness was used by both females and males, but it was found that women used more impoliteness strategies than men.</p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1310 Promoting English learning from home to Indonesian families: an alternative approach to learning foreign languages at an early age 2021-07-06T13:53:57+00:00 Lela Susanty leilashanty7@gmail.com Husna Imro'athush Sholihah leilashanty7@gmail.com Ignatius Septo Pramesworo leilashanty7@gmail.com Sadieli Telaumbanua leilashanty7@gmail.com Abd Basir leilashanty7@gmail.com <p>This paper will describe an alternative approach to promoting English as a foreign language from an early age among Indonesian families. We are aware that several approaches have been taken by researchers, curriculum writers, and school teachers, but in reality, the success has not been as satisfying as the expectations of all parties, especially the government. Therefore, we have collected data and analyzed it under a descriptive qualitative study approach. Data analysis starts from applying data coding, critical interpretation, evaluation, and data organization to become valid, finding data to answer questions as above. Based on research evidence from hundreds of works of literature, we can conclude from the results of this study, among other things, that the approach to promoting English language learning in families at an early age has proven to be very successful compared to the approach to learning in schools when they are teenagers. Thus, it is hoped that this finding will be beneficial for many parties; curriculum designers, teachers, and parents.</p> 2021-07-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1485 Identification of barriers and challenges to teaching English at an early age in Indonesia: an international publication analysis study 2021-09-24T14:37:27+00:00 Harto Malik malik@ung.ac.id Megan Asri Humaira malik@ung.ac.id Achmad Nur Komari malik@ung.ac.id Irwan Fathurrochman malik@ung.ac.id Imam Jayanto malik@ung.ac.id <p>This paper will identify some of the barriers and challenges in teaching English early in Indonesia. We believe that teaching English as a foreign language has many obstacles and challenges that must be raised and published so that all parties with interest in teaching foreign languages ??in Indonesia, especially in early childhood, will receive enlightenment. So, we have first received much input from various data sources that we access electronically. All of our data is related to the purpose of this study, and we analyze it with a descriptive qualitative design under the control of a phenomenological approach so that the results will be valid and reliable findings. Based on the discussion of the findings, we can conclude that many teachers are often hampered by a lack of enthusiasm, limited study schedules, teaching resources, inadequate materials, and excess students in class. On the other hand, students have shallow learning motivation and very few skills related to learning English as a foreigner. Therefore, this is an insight for many parties who work in succeeding in English teaching in Indonesia.</p> 2021-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1483 Archetypes in Biak folktales: characters, symbols, and concepts 2021-09-23T22:55:35+00:00 Reimundus R. Fatubun mal1959ever@gmail.com <p>Characters, symbols, concepts, patterns, ideas, images, and many more are similar across the globe. This is because people are similar around the world to put it simply. But to put it in a more sophisticated way, these similarities are there because all human ancestors originated from the same place i. e Africa and later spread all around the globe together with the unconscious patterns of images, ideas, etc. inherited in their genes and universally present in individual psyches. These similarities in characters, symbols, concepts, patterns, and others are called archetypes. Using archetypal criticism, this article will present a number of archetypal characters, archetypal symbols, and archetypal concepts found in the Biak (in Papua) folk stories with discussions of similar characters, symbols, and concepts from around the globe. One very famous example of archetypal character in the Biak stories is Manarmakeri in the Manarmakeri myth with the famous archetypal symbol which found its way to be in the ‘Bintang Kejora’ (the Morning Star) flag of the Papua Freedom Movement called Sampari (also Makmeser), and the archetypal concept of a bountiful era, like Eden, called Koreri still sought for until today.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1509 The alienated human 2021-10-09T14:33:52+00:00 Nguyen Anh Quoc nm.tri@hutech.edu.vn Nguyen Minh Tri nm.tri@hutech.edu.vn Nguyen Anh Thuong nm.tri@hutech.edu.vn Dinh The Hoang nm.tri@hutech.edu.vn Nguyen Van Bung nm.tri@hutech.edu.vn <p>Man and nature is a unity between body and individual in behavior. Humans are liberty, creative, happy subjects in behavior and labor. By behavior and labor, humans produce tools, spare parts, machines, and robots to replace internal organs, lengthen the senses, and lengthen defective body parts. Evolution is no longer a mutation in the body but the assembly of accessories into organs, senses, and body parts when needed. People use devices that are manufactured to be used for what people want depending on specific conditions and circumstances. Labor and behavior make objectification of people, but alienated behavior and alienated labor make humanize the object. The time to enjoy liberty, creativity, and happiness is human, and the time to perform alienated behavior and alienated labor is the time to live for the non-human. People are corrupted into slavery to standards, money. It is the process of self-torture, torturing oneself; and the nobility of standards, the wealth of money is the unhappy product of life. Humans are liberty, creative and happy subjects; alienated human beings are all helpless, unhappy, deceit. Money, standards are products of helplessness, unhappiness, lies. Standards, money remove people from life.</p> 2021-10-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1517 Peculiar feminine ideal in the culture of Galicia-Volhynia state 2021-10-12T16:06:27+00:00 Oleg Chuyko art.trivium@gmail.com Anna Makogin makoginanna@gmail.com Iryna Kalynovska iruna.kalinovska@gmail.com Tetyana Maruschyk tetyana.maruschyk@pnu.edu.ua Oleksiy Zhadeyko 5910574@gmail.com <p>Based on artifacts discovered in Western Ukraine, in this paper, we attempt to trace back the pattern of feminine ideal in the culture of Galicia-Volhynia State. Our study reveals peculiar social and cultural relations between males and females in the society of medieval Ukraine-Rus at the then material culture and mythological mentality level. We study the things that surrounded Ruthenian women, namely, items of clothing and accessories which were conceived as expressions of the world-building concept where the preference is given to the categories of orderliness and habitability, wisdom, family, and community. Given its sign and symbolic affiliation with the cultural significance area, the ornamental component of the medieval costume complex was put to semiotic analysis. We applied the cultural approach with its specific axiological interpretation of any instances of human social and cultural life-sustaining activity.</p> 2021-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review http://lingcure.org/index.php/journal/article/view/1519 Axiological density of the linguocultural concept 2021-10-13T08:00:51+00:00 Alla Bondarenko alla_bodarenko21@rambler.com Tetiana Semashko semashko.tat@ukr.net Oksana Moroz oksenamoroz@gmail.com <p>The article is devoted to determining the factors of axiological features of cognitive forms. The main approaches related to the evaluation specification of linguistic and cultural concepts (structural and semantic) are outlined and analyzed. It is explained that the structural features of the linguo-cultural concept (historical and actual layers, domains and modular parts, nuclear and near-nuclear zone) determine its axiological features. The structure of the representation of knowledge is evaluative specified by the characteristics of its name (internal form, in equivalence, denotation and connotation, etc.). It is argued that the axiological characteristics of the concept are determined by external factors: belonging to one or different cultures, a particular subculture, the amount of collective historical, subjective emotional, and concrete-sensory experience, position on other concepts, rooted in the system of background knowledge, carrier mentality, stereotypes, as well as subjects of material and spiritual culture, etc. The term “axiological density of linguistic and cultural concept” was introduced into scientific circulation and an algorithm for its definition was proposed with the help of an integrative approach. Based on this algorithm, the modal (axiological) component of the linguistic and cultural concept of “time” in the poetic discourse of the 20th-21st centuries is analyzed.</p> 2021-10-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Linguistics and Culture Review